Let's have a few examples:
Use cases are enclosed using between parentheses (because two
parentheses looks like an oval).
You can also use the
usecase keyword to define a
And you can define an alias, using the
This alias will be used later, when defining relations.
The name defining an actor is enclosed between colons.
You can also use the
actor keyword to define an actor.
An alias can be assigned using the
as keyword and can be used later instead of the actor's name, e. g. when defining relations.
You can see from the following examples, that the actor definitions are optional.
You can change the actor style from stick man (by default) to:
- an awesome man with the
skinparam actorStyle awesome command;
- a hollow man with the
skinparam actorStyle hollow command.
Stick man (by default)
If you want to have a description spanning several lines, you can use quotes.
You can also use the following separators:
By using them pairwise and enclosing text between them, you can created separators with titles.
You can use packages to group actors or use cases.
You can use
rectangle to change the display of the package.
To link actors and use cases, the arrow
The more dashes
- in the arrow, the longer the
You can add a label on the arrow, by adding a
character in the arrow definition.
In this example, you see that User has not been defined
before, and is used as an actor.
If one actor/use case extends another one, you can use the symbol
You can use the
note left of ,
note right of ,
note top of ,
note bottom of keywords to
define notes related to a single object.
A note can be also define alone with the
keywords, then linked to other objects using the
You can add stereotypes while defining actors and use cases using
By default, links between classes have two dashes
-- and are vertically oriented.
It is possible to use horizontal link by putting a single dash (or dot) like this:
You can also change directions by reversing the link:
It is also possible to change arrow direction by adding
down keywords inside the arrow:
You can shorten the arrow by using only the first character of the direction (for example,
-d- instead of
or the two first characters (
Please note that you should not abuse this functionality : Graphviz gives usually good results without
And with the
left to right direction parameter:
newpage keywords to split your diagram into several pages or images.
The general default behavior when building diagram is top to bottom.
You may change to left to right using the
left to right direction command.
The result is often better with this direction.
You can use the skinparam
command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.
You can use this command :
You can define specific color and fonts for stereotyped actors and usecases.
You can add
/ to make Business Use Case.
You can change the color or style of individual arrows using the inline following notation:
[Ref. QA-3770 and QA-3816]
[See similar feature on deployment-diagram or class diagram]
You can change the color or style of individual element using the following notation:
[Ref. QA-5340 and adapted from QA-6852]
For another example, see on JSON page.