Creole синтаксис

Creole - это облегчённый язык разметки, используемый в различных вики.

Чтобы иметь стандартизированный способ стилизации текста, в PlantUML интегрирован легковесный движок Creole и все диаграммы в PlantUML поддерживают этот синтаксис.

Также сохраняется совместимость с синтаксисом HTML.

Emphasized text

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
Alice -> Bob : hello --there-- here
... Some ~~long delay~~ ...
Bob -> Alice : ok
note left
  This is **bold**
  This is //italics//
  This is ""monospaced""
  This is --stricken-out--
  This is __underlined__
  This is ~~wave-underlined~~
end note
@enduml

Lists

You can use numbered and bulleted lists in node text, notes, etc.

FIXME
🚩 You cannot quite mix numbers and bullets in a list and its sublist.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
object demo {
  * Bullet list
  * Second item
}
note left
  * Bullet list
  * Second item
  ** Sub item
end note

legend
  # Numbered list
  # Second item
  ## Sub item
  ## Another sub item
        * Can't quite mix 
        * Numbers and bullets
  # Third item
end legend
@enduml

Escape character

You can use the tilde ~ to escape special creole characters.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
object demo {
  This is not ~___underscored__.
  This is not ~""monospaced"".
}
@enduml

Headings

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
usecase UC1 as "
= Extra-large heading
Some text
== Large heading
Other text
=== Medium heading
Information
....
==== Small heading"
@enduml

Emoji

All emojis from Twemoji (see EmojiTwo on Github) are available using the following syntax:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
Alice -> Bob : Hello <:1f600:>
return <:innocent:>
Alice -> Bob : Without color: <#0:sunglasses:>
Alice -> Bob : Change color: <#green:sunny:>
@enduml

Unlike Unicode Special characters that depend on installed fonts, the emoji are always available. Furthermore, emoji are already colored, but you can recolor them if you like (see examples above).

One can pick emoji from the emoji cheat sheet, the Unicode full-emoji-list, or the flat list emoji.txt in the plantuml source.

You can also use the following PlantUML command to list available emoji:

@startuml
emoji <block>
@enduml

As of 13 April 2023, you can select between 1174 emoji from the following Unicode blocks:

Unicode block 26

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
emoji 26
@enduml

Horizontal lines

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
database DB1 as "
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
Enjoy!
"
note right
  This is working also in notes
  You can also add title in all these lines
  ==Title==
  --Another title--
end note

@enduml

Links

You can also use URL and links.

Simple links are define using two square brackets (or three square brackets for field or method on class diagram).

Example:
  • [[http://plantuml.com]]
  • [[http://plantuml.com This label is printed]]
  • [[http://plantuml.com{Optional tooltip} This label is printed]]

URL can also be authenticated.

Code

You can use <code> to display some programming code in your diagram (sorry, syntax highlighting is not yet supported).

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
Alice -> Bob : hello
note right
<code>
main() {
  printf("Hello world");
}
</code>
end note
@enduml

This is especially useful to illustrate some PlantUML code and the resulting rendering:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
hide footbox
note over Source
<code>
  This is **bold**
  This is //italics//
  This is ""monospaced""
  This is --stricken-out--
  This is __underlined__
  This is ~~wave-underlined~~
  --test Unicode and icons--
  This is <U+221E> long
  This is a <&code> icon
</code>
end note
/note over Output
  This is **bold**
  This is //italics//
  This is ""monospaced""
  This is --stricken-out--
  This is __underlined__
  This is ~~wave-underlined~~
  --test Unicode and icons--
  This is <U+221E> long
  This is a <&code> icon
end note
@enduml

Table

Create a table

It is possible to build table, with | separator.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
skinparam titleFontSize 14
title
  Example of simple table
  |= |= table |= header |
  | a | table | row |
  | b | table | row |
end title
[*] --> State1
@enduml

Add color on rows or cells

You can specify background colors of rows and cells:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
start
:Here is the result
|= |= table |= header |
| a | table | row |
|<#FF8080> red |<#80FF80> green |<#8080FF> blue |
<#yellow>| b | table | row |;
@enduml

Add color on border and text

You can also specify colors of text and borders.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
title
<#lightblue,#red>|=  Step  |=  Date  |=  Name  |=  Status  |=  Link  |
<#lightgreen>|  1.1  |  TBD  | plantuml news |<#Navy><color:OrangeRed><b> Unknown  | [[https://plantuml.com/news plantuml news]] |
end title
@enduml

[Ref. QA-7184]

No border or same color as the background

You can also set the border color to the same color as the background.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
node n
note right of n
  <#FBFB77,#FBFB77>|= Husky / Yorkie |= Foo |
  | SourceTree1 | foo1 |
  | ST2 | foo2 |
end note
@enduml

[Ref. QA-12448]

Bold header or not

= as the first char of a cell indicates whether to make it bold (usually used for headers), or not.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
note as deepCSS0
  |<#white> Husky / Yorkie |
  |=<#gainsboro> SourceTree0 |
endnote

note as deepCSS1
  |= <#white> Husky / Yorkie |= Foo |
  |<#gainsboro><r> SourceTree1 | foo1 |
endnote

note as deepCSS2
  |= Husky / Yorkie |
  |<#gainsboro> SourceTree2 |
endnote

note as deepCSS3
  <#white>|= Husky / Yorkie |= Foo |
  |<#gainsboro> SourceTree1 | foo1 |
endnote
@enduml

[Ref. QA-10923]

Tree

You can use |_ characters to build a tree.

On common commands, like title:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
skinparam titleFontSize 14
title
  Example of Tree
  |_ First line
  |_ **Bom (Model)**
    |_ prop1
    |_ prop2
    |_ prop3
  |_ Last line
end title
[*] --> State1
@enduml

On Class diagram.

(Please note how we have to use an empty second compartment, else the parentheses in (Model) cause that text to be moved to a separate first compartment):

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
class Foo {
**Bar (Model)**
|_ prop
|_ **Bom (Model)**
  |_ prop2
  |_ prop3
    |_ prop3.1
|_ prop4 :(
--
}
@enduml

[Ref. QA-3448]

On Component or Deployment diagrams:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
[A] as A
rectangle "Box B" {
    component B [
        Level 1
        |_ Level 2a
          |_ Level 3a 
          |_ Level 3b
          |_ Level 3c
            |_ Level 4a
          |_ Level 3d
        |_ Level 2b
          |_ Level 3e
    ]
}
A -> B
@enduml

[Ref. QA-11365]

Special characters

It's possible to use any unicode character, either directly or with syntax &#nnnnnn; (decimal) or <U+XXXXX> (hex):

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
usecase direct as "this is ∞ long"
usecase ampHash as "this is also ∞ long"
usecase angleBrackets as "this is also <U+221E> long"
@enduml

Please note that not all Unicode chars appear correctly, depending on installed fonts.
  • You can use the listfonts command with a test string of your desired characters, to see which fonts may include them.
  • For characters that are emoji, it's better to use the Emoji notation that doesn't depend on installed fonts, and the emoji are colored.
  • The PlantUML server has the "Noto Emoji" font that has most emoji. If you want to render diagrams on your local system, you should check which fonts you have.
  • Unfortunately "Noto Emoji" lacks normal chars, so you need to switch fonts, eg

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
rectangle "<font:Noto Emoji><U+1F3F7></font> label"
rectangle "<font:Noto Emoji><U+1F527></font> wrench"
rectangle "<font:Noto Emoji><U+1F6E0></font> hammer_and_wrench"
@enduml

See Issue 72 for more details.

Legacy HTML

You can mix Creole with the following HTML tags:
  • <b> for bold text
  • <u> or <u:#AAAAAA> or <u:[[color|colorName]]> for underline
  • <i> for italic
  • <s> or <s:#AAAAAA> or <s:[[color|colorName]]> for strike text
  • <w> or <w:#AAAAAA> or <w:[[color|colorName]]> for wave underline text
  • <plain> for plain text
  • <color:#AAAAAA> or <color:[[color|colorName]]>
  • <back:#AAAAAA> or <back:[[color|colorName]]> for background color
  • <size:nn> to change font size
  • <img:file> : the file must be accessible by the filesystem
  • <img:http://plantuml.com/logo3.png> : the URL must be available from the Internet

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
:* You can change <color:red>text color</color>
* You can change <back:cadetblue>background color</back>
* You can change <size:18>size</size>
* You use <u>legacy</u> <b>HTML <i>tag</i></b>
* You use <u:red>color</u> <s:green>in HTML</s> <w:#0000FF>tag</w>
----
* Use image : <img:http://plantuml.com/logo3.png>
;
@enduml

Common HTML element

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
hide footbox
note over Source
<code>
  This is <b>bold</b>
  This is <i>italics</i>
  This is <font:monospaced>monospaced</font>
  This is <s>stroked</s>
  This is <u>underlined</u>
  This is <w>waved</w>
  This is <s:green>stroked</s>
  This is <u:red>underlined</u>
  This is <w:#0000FF>waved</w>
  This is <b>a bold text containing <plain>plain text</plain> inside</b>
  -- other examples --
  This is <color:blue>Blue</color>
  This is <back:orange>Orange background</back>
  This is <size:20>big</size>
</code>
end note
/note over Output
  This is <b>bold</b>
  This is <i>italics</i>
  This is <font:monospaced>monospaced</font>
  This is <s>stroked</s>
  This is <u>underlined</u>
  This is <w>waved</w>
  This is <s:green>stroked</s>
  This is <u:red>underlined</u>
  This is <w:#0000FF>waved</w>
  This is <b>a bold text containing <plain>plain text</plain> inside</b>
  -- other examples --
  This is <color:blue>Blue</color>
  This is <back:orange>Orange background</back>
  This is <size:20>big</size>
end note
@enduml

[Ref. QA-5254 for plain]

Subscript and Superscript element [sub, sup]

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
:<code>
This is the "caffeine" molecule: C<sub>8</sub>H<sub>10</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>2</sub>
</code>
This is the "caffeine" molecule: C<sub>8</sub>H<sub>10</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>2</sub>
----
<code>
This is the Pythagorean theorem: a<sup>2</sup> + b<sup>2</sup> = c<sup>2</sup>
</code>
This is the Pythagorean theorem: a<sup>2</sup> + b<sup>2</sup> = c<sup>2</sup>;
@enduml

OpenIconic

OpenIconic is a very nice open-source icon set. Those icons are integrated in the creole parser, so you can use them out-of-the-box.

Use the following syntax: <&ICON_NAME>.

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
title: <size:20><&heart>Use of OpenIconic<&heart></size>
class Wifi
note left
  Click on <&wifi>
end note
@enduml

The complete list is available with the following special command:

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
listopeniconic
@enduml

Appendix: Examples of "Creole List" on all diagrams

Activity

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
start
:**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item;
stop
@enduml

Class

FIXME
🚩
  • Sub item
  • Sub sub item
FIXME

🎉 Copied!

@startuml

class a {
**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item
}

a -- b 

@enduml

Component, Deployment, Use-Case

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
node n [
**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item
]

file f as "
**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item
"
@enduml

DONE
[Corrected in V1.2020.18]

Gantt project planning

N/A

Object

FIXME
🚩
  • Sub item
  • Sub sub item
FIXME

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
object user {
**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----	
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item
}

@enduml

MindMap

🎉 Copied!

@startmindmap

* root
** d1
**:**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item;


@endmindmap

Network (nwdiag)

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
nwdiag {
  network Network {
      Server [description="**test list 1**\n* Bullet list\n* Second item\n** Sub item\n*** Sub sub item\n* Third item\n----\n**test list 2**\n# Numbered list\n# Second item\n## Sub item\n## Another sub item\n# Third item"];
}
@enduml

Note

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
note as n
**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item
end note
@enduml

Sequence

N/A (or on note or common commands)

State

N/A (or on note or common commands)

WBS

🎉 Copied!

@startwbs

* root
** d1
**:**test list 1**
* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item
*** Sub sub item
* Third item
----
**test list 2**
# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item
## Another sub item
# Third item;

@endwbs

Appendix: Examples of "Creole horizontal lines" on all diagrams

Activity

FIXME
🚩 strong line ____
FIXME

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
start
:You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
Or dotted title
//and title... //
==Title==
Or double-line title
--Another title--
Or single-line title
Enjoy!;
stop
@enduml

Class

🎉 Copied!

@startuml

class a {
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
Or dotted title
//and title... //
==Title==
Or double-line title
--Another title--
Or single-line title
Enjoy!
}

a -- b 

@enduml

Component, Deployment, Use-Case

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
node n [
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!
]

file f as "
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!
"

person p [

You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!

]
@enduml

Gantt project planning

N/A

Object

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
object user {
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!
}

@enduml

DONE
[Corrected on V1.2020.18]

MindMap

FIXME
🚩 strong line ____
FIXME

🎉 Copied!

@startmindmap

* root
** d1
**:You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!;

@endmindmap

Network (nwdiag)

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
nwdiag {
  network Network {
      Server [description="You can have horizontal line\n----\nOr double line\n====\nOr strong line\n____\nOr dotted line\n..My title..\n//and title... //\n==Title==\n--Another title--\nEnjoy!"];
}
@enduml

Note

🎉 Copied!

@startuml
note as n
You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!
end note
@enduml

Sequence

N/A (or on note or common commands)

State

N/A (or on note or common commands)

WBS

FIXME
🚩 strong line ____
FIXME

🎉 Copied!

@startwbs

* root
** d1
**:You can have horizontal line
----
Or double line
====
Or strong line
____
Or dotted line
..My title..
//and title... //
==Title==
--Another title--
Enjoy!;

@endwbs

Style equivalent (between Creole and HTML)

Style Creole Legacy HTML like
bold This is **bold** This is <b>bold</b>
italics This is //italics// This is <i>italics</i>
monospaced This is ""monospaced"" This is <font:monospaced>monospaced</font>
stroked This is --stroked-- This is <s>stroked</s>
underlined This is __underlined__ This is <u>underlined</u>
waved This is ~~waved~~ This is <w>waved</w>

🎉 Copied!

@startmindmap
* Style equivalent\n(between Creole and HTML) 
**:**Creole**
----
<#silver>|= code|= output|
| \n This is ""~**bold**""\n | \n This is **bold** |
| \n This is ""~//italics//""\n | \n This is //italics// |
| \n This is ""~""monospaced~"" ""\n | \n This is ""monospaced"" |
| \n This is ""~--stroked--""\n | \n This is --stroked-- |
| \n This is ""~__underlined__""\n |  \n This is __underlined__ |
| \n This is ""<U+007E><U+007E>waved<U+007E><U+007E>""\n | \n This is ~~waved~~ |;
**:<b>Legacy HTML like
----
<#silver>|= code|= output|
| \n This is ""~<b>bold</b>""\n | \n This is <b>bold</b> |
| \n This is ""~<i>italics</i>""\n | \n This is <i>italics</i> |
| \n This is ""~<font:monospaced>monospaced</font>""\n | \n This is <font:monospaced>monospaced</font> |
| \n This is ""~<s>stroked</s>""\n | \n  This is <s>stroked</s> |
| \n This is ""~<u>underlined</u>""\n | \n This is <u>underlined</u> |
| \n This is ""~<w>waved</w>""\n | \n This is <w>waved</w> |

And color as a bonus...
<#silver>|= code|= output|
| \n This is ""~<s:""<color:green>""green""</color>"">stroked</s>""\n | \n  This is <s:green>stroked</s> |
| \n This is ""~<u:""<color:red>""red""</color>"">underlined</u>""\n | \n This is <u:red>underlined</u> |
| \n This is ""~<w:""<color:#0000FF>""#0000FF""</color>"">waved</w>""\n | \n This is <w:#0000FF>waved</w> |;
@endmindmap


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