活动图(新语法)

当前活动图(activity diagram)的语法有诸多限制和缺点,比如代码难以维护。

所以从V7947开始提出一种全新的、更好的语法格式和软件实现供用户使用(beta版)。

就像序列图一样,新的软件实现的另一个优点是它不再依赖于Graphviz。

新的语法将会替换旧的语法。然而考虑到兼容性,旧的语法仍被能够使用以确保向前兼容

但是我们鼓励用户使用新的语法格式。

简单活动图

活动标签(activity label)以冒号开始,以分号结束。

文本格式支持creole wiki语法。

活动默认安装它们定义的顺序就行连接。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
:Hello world;
:This is on defined on
several **lines**;
@enduml

开始/结束

你可以使用关键字startstop表示图示的开始和结束。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
:Hello world;
:This is on defined on
several **lines**;
stop
@enduml

也可以使用 end 关键字。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
:Hello world;
:This is on defined on
several **lines**;
end
@enduml

条件语句

在图示中可以使用关键字ifthenelse设置分支测试。标注文字则放在括号中。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start

if (Graphviz installed?) then (yes)
  :process all\ndiagrams;
else (no)
  :process only
  __sequence__ and __activity__ diagrams;
endif

stop

@enduml

也可以使用关键字elseif设置多个分支测试。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
if (condition A) then (yes)
  :Text 1;
elseif (condition B) then (yes)
  :Text 2;
  stop
elseif (condition C) then (yes)
  :Text 3;
elseif (condition D) then (yes)
  :Text 4;
else (nothing)
  :Text else;
endif
stop
@enduml

*[Refs. [QA-3931](https:forum.plantuml.net/3931/please-provide-elseif-structure-vertically-activity-diagrams), [issue-582](https:github.com/plantuml/plantuml/issues/582)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Switch and case [switch, case, endswitch]

You can use switch, case and endswitch keywords to put switch in your diagram.

Labels can be provided using parentheses.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
switch (test?)
case ( condition A )
  :Text 1;
case ( condition B ) 
  :Text 2;
case ( condition C )
  :Text 3;
case ( condition D )
  :Text 4;
case ( condition E )
  :Text 5;
endswitch
stop
@enduml

Conditional with stop on an action [kill, detach]

You can stop action on a if loop.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
if (condition?) then
  :error;
  stop
endif
#palegreen:action;
@enduml

But if you want to stop at the precise action, you can use the kill or detach keyword:

  • kill

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
if (condition?) then
  #pink:error;
  kill
endif
#palegreen:action;
@enduml

[Ref. QA-265]

  • detach

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
if (condition?) then
  #pink:error;
  detach
endif
#palegreen:action;
@enduml

重复循环

你可以使用关键字repeatrepeatwhile进行重复循环。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start

repeat
  :read data;
  :generate diagrams;
repeat while (more data?)

stop

@enduml

It is also possible to use a full action as repeat target and insert an action in the return path using the backward keyword.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start

repeat :foo as starting label;
  :read data;
  :generate diagrams;
backward:This is backward;
repeat while (more data?)

stop

@enduml

Break on a repeat loop [break]

You can use the break keyword after an action on a loop.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
repeat
  :Test something;
    if (Something went wrong?) then (no)
      #palegreen:OK;
      break
    endif
    ->NOK;
    :Alert "Error with long text";
repeat while (Something went wrong with long text?) is (yes) not (no)
->//merged step//;
:Alert "Success";
stop
@enduml

[Ref. QA-6105]

while循环

可以使用关键字whileend while进行while循环。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start

while (data available?)
  :read data;
  :generate diagrams;
endwhile

stop

@enduml

还可以在关键字endwhile后添加标注,还有一种方式是使用关键字is

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
while (check filesize ?) is (not empty)
  :read file;
endwhile (empty)
:close file;
@enduml

并行处理

你可以使用关键字forkfork againend fork表示并行处理。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start

if (multiprocessor?) then (yes)
  fork
    :Treatment 1;
  fork again
    :Treatment 2;
  end fork
else (monoproc)
  :Treatment 1;
  :Treatment 2;
endif

@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Split processing

Split

You can use split, split again and end split keywords to denote split processing.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
split
   :A;
split again
   :B;
split again
   :C;
split again
   :a;
   :b;
end split
:D;
end
@enduml

Input split (multi-start)

You can use hidden arrows to make an input split (multi-start):

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
split
   -[hidden]->
   :A;
split again
   -[hidden]->
   :B;
split again
   -[hidden]->
   :C;
end split
:D;
@enduml

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
split
   -[hidden]->
   :A;
split again
   -[hidden]->
   :a;
   :b;
split again
   -[hidden]->
   (Z)
end split
:D;
@enduml

[Ref. QA-8662]

Output split (multi-end)

You can use kill or detach to make an output split (multi-end):

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
split
   :A;
   kill
split again
   :B;
   detach
split again
   :C;
   kill
end split
@enduml

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
split
   :A;
   kill
split again
   :b;
   :c;
   detach
split again
   (Z)
   detach
split again
   end
split again
   stop
end split
@enduml

注释

文本格式支持creole wiki语法。

A note can be floating, using floating keyword.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start
:foo1;
floating note left: This is a note
:foo2;
note right
  This note is on several
  //lines// and can
  contain <b>HTML</b>
  ====
  * Calling the method ""foo()"" is prohibited
end note
stop

@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-2398](https://forum.plantuml.net/2398/is-it-possible-to-add-a-comment-on-top-of-a-activity-partition?show=2403#a2403)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

颜色

你可以为活动(activity)指定一种颜色

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start
:starting progress;
#HotPink:reading configuration files
These files should edited at this point!;
#AAAAAA:ending of the process;

@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-4906](https://forum.plantuml.net/4906/setting-ad-hoc-gradient-backgrounds-in-activity?show=4917#a4917)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Lines without arrows

You can use skinparam ArrowHeadColor none in order to connect activities using lines only, without arrows.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ArrowHeadColor none
start
:Hello world;
:This is on defined on
several **lines**;
stop
@enduml

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ArrowHeadColor none
start
repeat :Enter data;
:Submit;
backward :Warning;
repeat while (Valid?) is (No) not (Yes)
stop
@enduml

箭头

使用->标记,你可以给箭头添加文字或者修改箭头颜色

同时,你也可以选择点状 (dotted),条状(dashed),加粗或者是隐式箭头

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
:foo1;
-> You can put text on arrows;
if (test) then
  -[#blue]->
  :foo2;
  -[#green,dashed]-> The text can
  also be on several lines
  and **very** long...;
  :foo3;
else
  -[#black,dotted]->
  :foo4;
endif
-[#gray,bold]->
:foo5;
@enduml

连接器(Connector)

你可以使用括号定义连接器。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
:Some activity;
(A)
detach
(A)
:Other activity;
@enduml

Color on connector

You can add color on connector.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
:The connector below
wishes he was blue;
#blue:(B)
:This next connector
feels that she would
be better off green;
#green:(G)
stop
@enduml

[Ref. QA-10077]

组合(grouping)

通过定义分区(partition),你可以把多个活动组合(group)在一起。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
partition Initialization {
    :read config file;
    :init internal variable;
}
partition Running {
    :wait for user interaction;
    :print information;
}

stop
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-2793](https://forum.plantuml.net/2793/activity-beta-partition-name-more-than-one-word-does-not-work?show=2798#a2798)]* *[Ref. [QA-542](https://forum.plantuml.net/542/ability-to-define-hyperlink-on-diagram-elements?show=14003#c14003)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

泳道(Swimlanes)

你可以使用管道符|来定义泳道。

还可以改变泳道的颜色

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
|Swimlane1|
start
:foo1;
|#AntiqueWhite|Swimlane2|
:foo2;
:foo3;
|Swimlane1|
:foo4;
|Swimlane2|
:foo5;
stop
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-2681](https://forum.plantuml.net/2681/possible-define-alias-swimlane-place-alias-everywhere-else?show=2685#a2685)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

分离(detach)

可以使用关键字detach移除箭头。

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
 :start;
 fork
   :foo1;
   :foo2;
 fork again
   :foo3;
   detach
 endfork
 if (foo4) then
   :foo5;
   detach
 endif
 :foo6;
 detach
 :foo7;
 stop
@enduml

特殊领域语言(SDL)

通过修改活动标签最后的分号分隔符(;),可以为活动设置不同的形状。
  • |
  • <
  • >
  • /
  • ]
  • }

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
:Ready;
:next(o)|
:Receiving;
split
 :nak(i)<
 :ack(o)>
split again
 :ack(i)<
 :next(o)
 on several line|
 :i := i + 1]
 :ack(o)>
split again
 :err(i)<
 :nak(o)>
split again
 :foo/
split again
 :i > 5}
stop
end split
:finish;
@enduml

一个完整的例子

🎉 Copied!
@startuml

start
:ClickServlet.handleRequest();
:new page;
if (Page.onSecurityCheck) then (true)
  :Page.onInit();
  if (isForward?) then (no)
    :Process controls;
    if (continue processing?) then (no)
      stop
    endif

    if (isPost?) then (yes)
      :Page.onPost();
    else (no)
      :Page.onGet();
    endif
    :Page.onRender();
  endif
else (false)
endif

if (do redirect?) then (yes)
  :redirect process;
else
  if (do forward?) then (yes)
    :Forward request;
  else (no)
    :Render page template;
  endif
endif

stop

@enduml

Condition Style

Inside style (by default)

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam conditionStyle inside
start
repeat
  :act1;
  :act2;
repeatwhile (<b>end)
:act3;
@enduml

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
repeat
  :act1;
  :act2;
repeatwhile (<b>end)
:act3;
@enduml

Diamond style

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam conditionStyle diamond
start
repeat
  :act1;
  :act2;
repeatwhile (<b>end)
:act3;
@enduml

InsideDiamond (or Foo1) style

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam conditionStyle InsideDiamond
start
repeat
  :act1;
  :act2;
repeatwhile (<b>end)
:act3;
@enduml

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam conditionStyle foo1
start
repeat
  :act1;
  :act2;
repeatwhile (<b>end)
:act3;
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1290 and #400]

Condition End Style

Diamond style (by default)

  • With one branch

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ConditionEndStyle diamond
:A;
if (decision) then (yes)
    :B1;
else (no)
endif
:C;
@enduml

  • With two branches (B1, B2)

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ConditionEndStyle diamond
:A;
if (decision) then (yes)
    :B1;
else (no)
    :B2;
endif
:C;
@enduml
@enduml

Horizontal line (hline) style

  • With one branch

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ConditionEndStyle hline
:A;
if (decision) then (yes)
    :B1;
else (no)
endif
:C;
@enduml

  • With two branches (B1, B2)

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
skinparam ConditionEndStyle hline
:A;
if (decision) then (yes)
    :B1;
else (no)
    :B2;
endif
:C;
@enduml
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4015]

Using (global) style

Without style (by default)

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
start
:init;
-> test of color;
if (color?) is (<color:red>red) then
:print red;
else 
:print not red;
note right: no color
endif
partition End {
:end;
}
-> this is the end;
end
@enduml

With style

You can use style to change rendering of elements.

🎉 Copied!
@startuml
<style>
activityDiagram {
  BackgroundColor #33668E
  BorderColor #33668E
  FontColor #888
  FontName arial

  diamond {
    BackgroundColor #ccf
    LineColor #00FF00
    FontColor green
    FontName arial
    FontSize 15
  }
  arrow {
    FontColor gold
    FontName arial
    FontSize 15
  }
  partition {
    LineColor red
    FontColor green
    RoundCorner 10
    BackgroundColor PeachPuff
  }
  note {
    FontColor Blue
    LineColor Navy
    BackgroundColor #ccf
  }
}
document {
   BackgroundColor transparent
}
</style>
start
:init;
-> test of color;
if (color?) is (<color:red>red) then
:print red;
else 
:print not red;
note right: no color
endif
partition End {
:end;
}
-> this is the end;
end
@enduml